The panel affirmed the district court’s judgment after a jury trial on claims under the Lanham Act and Nevada state law regarding the use of Bob Marley images on apparel and other merchandise.
Affirming the denial of defendants’ post-trial motion for judgment as a matter of law on a false endorsement claim, the panel held that sufficient evidence supported the jury’s finding that defendants violated the Lanham Act because they (a) used Marley’s image (b) on their t-shirts and other merchandise, (c) in a manner likely to cause confusion as to plaintiffs’ sponsorship or approval of these t-shirts and other merchandise. The panel held that defendants waived several defenses. It rejected the argument that allowing a plaintiff to vindicate a false endorsement claim based on the use of a deceased celebrity’s persona essentially creates a federal right of publicity.
The panel held that the district court did not abuse its broad discretion in determining the profits for three defendants. There was sufficient evidence to find that defendant Freeze willfully infringed plaintiffs’ rights. The Seventh Amendment did not require that a jury calculate these profits. The panel held that the district court did not abuse its discretion by ordering three defendants to pay attorneys’ fees to plaintiffs because (1) plaintiffs were prevailing parties, and (2) the case was exceptional, as these defendants’ conduct was willful.
The panel affirmed the district court’s grant of summary judgment to defendants on a right of publicity claim under Nevada law.
The panel held that there was sufficient evidence to support the jury’s finding that three defendants interfered with plaintiffs’ prospective economic advantage.
The panel held that the district court did not err in granting defendants’ motion for judgment as a matter of law on the issue of punitive damages.
Concurring in part and dissenting in part, Judge Christen concurred in the result but did not join the reasoning in Subsection I.B.2 of the majority’s opinion, addressing likelihood of confusion. Judge Christen wrote that the narrow holding in Part I, concluding that the evidence presented at trial was sufficient for the jury to find that defendants violated the Lanham Act by using Marley’s likeness, was dictated by the standard of review on appeal, and by the defenses actually pursued by defendants.