The United States District Court for the Eastern District of Wisconsin granted Metalcraft of Mayville, Inc.’s motion for a preliminary injunction precluding The Toro Company and Exmark Manufacturing Co., Inc. from making, using, selling, and offering to sell lawnmowers equipped with platform suspension systems that infringe U.S. Patent No. 8,186,475 (“the ’475 patent”). We affirm.
Organik Kimya San. ve Tic., A.Ş., Organik Kimya Netherlands B.V., and Organik Kimya US, Inc. (collectively, “Organik Kimya”) appeal from the International Trade Commission’s (“the Commission” or “ITC”) decision imposing default judgment sanctions for spoliation of evidence and entering a limited exclusion order against Organik Kimya. See Certain Opaque Polymers, Inv. No. 337-TA-883, 2015 ITC LEXIS 139, at *5–6 (Apr. 17, 2015); see also Certain Opaque Polymers, Inv. No. 337-TA-883, at 16–24, available at http://www.itcblog.com/images/ commopin883.pdf (“Commission Opinion”); Certain Opaque Polymers, Inv. No. 337-TA-883, USITC Order No. 27, 2014 WL 5768586 (Oct. 20, 2014) (“ALJ Order”). Because the Commission did not abuse its discretion in entering default judgment as a sanction for Organik Kimya’s spoliation of evidence and further did not abuse its discretion in entering the limited exclusion order, we affirm.
Apple Inc. petitioned for inter partes review of various claims of PersonalWeb Technologies, LLC’s U.S. Patent No. 7,802,310, asserting unpatentability for obviousness based on two prior-art references. After instituting review, the Patent Trial and Appeal Board reviewed the claims and agreed with Apple. PersonalWeb appeals the Board’s construction of certain claim terms and the ultimate obviousness determination. We affirm the Board’s claim construction. We vacate the Board’s obviousness determination as to the appealed claims, because the Board did not adequately support its findings that the prior art disclosed all elements of the challenged claims and that a relevant skilled artisan would have had a motivation to combine the prior-art references to produce the claimed ’310 inventions with a reasonable expectation of success. We remand for further proceedings.
MPHJ Technology Investments, LLC appeals the decision of the Patent Trial and Appeal Board (“Board” or “PTAB”), on Inter Partes Review, that claims 1–8 of MPHJ’s U.S. Patent No. 8,488,173 (“the ’173 Patent”) are invalid on the grounds of anticipation or obviousness.1 On appellate review, we affirm the Board’s decision. To determine the validity of a patented invention, the meaning and scope of the claims are first determined. See Smiths Indus. Med. Sys., Inc. v. Vital Signs, Inc., 183 F.3d 1347, 1353 (Fed. Cir. 1999) (“[T]he first step in any validity analysis is to construe the claims of the invention to determine the subject matter for which patent protection is sought.”). As ratified by the Supreme Court in Cuozzo Speed Technologies, LLC v. Lee, 136 S. Ct. 2131 (2016), when unexpired patents are reviewed by the Board, the claims are given their broadest reasonable interpretation consistent with the specification and the prosecution history, from the viewpoint of persons skilled in the field of the invention.
Defendant Donald Bowers was previously involved in a civil trade secret misappropriation case that was litigated in the United States District Court for the District of Utah. During the course of that litigation, Bowers willfully and repeatedly violated a permanent injunction issued by the district court presiding over the case, and also refused to purge himself of civil contempt. His actions resulted in findings of civil contempt against him, judgments against him for the plaintiff’s attorneys’ fees, and, ultimately, a criminal referral to the United States Attorney for the District of Utah. A federal grand jury subsequently indicted Bowers on two counts of contempt, in violation of 18 U.S.C. § 401(3). The case proceeded to trial, where a jury found Bowers guilty of both counts. Bowers was sentenced to a term of imprisonment of fifteen months, to be followed by a thirty-six month term of supervised release. He was also directed, as a condition of supervised release, to make monthly payments on the outstanding amount owed by him to the plaintiff in the underlying civil case.
Bowers now appeals, arguing that the district court erred in (1) imposing a special condition of supervised release requiring him to make monthly payments on the outstanding judgments owed to the plaintiff in the civil case, (2) denying his motion for disclosure of the criminal referral, and (3) sentencing him to a term of imprisonment that exceeded six months. Exercising jurisdiction pursuant to 28 U.S.C. § 1291, we affirm in all respects.